What is a gas scrubber, chemical scrubber, or fume scrubber?
A gas scrubber (or fume scrubber) is an air pollution control device that is designed to remove specific gases, vapors, and fumes from an industrial exhaust air stream.
Also known as chemical scrubber, a gas scrubber typically sprays a scrubbing liquid into the exhaust air stream to absorb, dissolve, or chemically react with the gas-phase contaminants and pollutants.
In some cases, the gas scrubber could also be a dry scrubber type. This depends on the type of gases or chemicals that need to be absorbed or dissolved. Some vapors or fumes that aren't water-soluble could be good targets for a dry scrubber or dry sorbent injection (DSI) system. The most common type of dry scrubber is a limestone-based scrubber which uses limestone powder.
Most gas scrubber applications are best suited to use a liquid-based scrubber. Applications include gases such as:
- Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
- Sulfuric acid (H2S04)
- Ammonia (NH3)
- Chlorine (Cl)
- Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
- Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
- Other sulfur compounds
The scrubbing liquid is chosen specifically to neutralize the incoming contaminants. For example, if the incoming vapor pollutant is an acid gas, then an alkaline scrubbing solution will be used to neutralize the acid via a chemical reaction. Similarly, if the pollutant is ammonia gas, then diluted sulfuric acid will be used as the scrubbing liquid to react with and neutralize the ammonia gas.
Gas Scrubbers are typically in the form of a cylindrical tower, where the scrubbing liquid is sprayed into the top of the tower and travels downward, while the dirty air enters at the bottom of the tower and moves upwards through the liquid. The tower may contain a packing material to facilitate air-to-liquid mixing, these are called packed-bed gas scrubbers.
Gas Scrubbers can be used to capture several types of exhaust gases in a single stream, but they are typically not effective for capturing organic non-polar gases (this includes most VOCs and some organic non-polar odors). Gas/chemical scrubbers can be used to capture gases that are soluble in water, such as alcohols and other polar molecules. The names 'gas scrubber', 'fume scrubber', and 'chemical scrubber' may be used interchangeably.
Gas Scrubber effectiveness on:
*Examples include: chromium (hexavalent chromium), arsenic, cadmium, mercury (mercury vapors), and lead.
*A gas scrubber is effective at removing inorganic odor compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3).
Industries, Applications, & Case Studies
The Best Gas Scrubber Manufacturers
Other Types of Scrubbers
- Chemical Scrubber
- Fume Scrubber
- Particulate Scrubber
- Dust Scrubber
- Alkaline Scrubber
- Boiler Scrubber
- Sulfuric Acid Scrubber
- H2S Scrubber
- Chlorine Scrubber
- Sulfur Dioxide Scrubber
- SO2 Scrubber
- Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD)
- Power Plant Scrubber
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